- after Persia left, Greece had peace, Athens rebuilt an empire.
- 460 BCE, more political disputes until Pericles, and Athens Golden Age.
- Athens and Sparta tensions lead to Peloponnesian War. After 10 years, they agreed to a truce.
- 411 BCE, Socrates emerged to debate, and war was back on. Athens surrendered, and Democracy restored, but new Spartan laws implemented. Trial of Socrates and his death, and student Plato returned to found Academy.
- 337 BCE, Philip of Macedonia conquered most of Greece, including Athens, while Plato’s greatest student Aristotle left over disagreements. He travelled to tutor Philip's son Alexander, then returned to found Lyceum. Alexander went on to conquer much of Eurasia, and spread Greek culture.
- 323 BCE, Alexander the Great died, his empire split, and Hellenistic Age began. Engineering, math and science flourished, and ancient wonders such as Colossus of Rhodes and Lighthouse of Alexandria built.
- 168 BCE, power struggles kept Greece split until Rome took control.