- 776 BCE, by first Olympic Games, Greece leaving its Dark Age. Iron weapons & metal working spread from Armenia, and best iron near Sparta.
- 550 BCE, Sparta the strongest state in Greece.
- other Greeks moving to colonize coasts, where farming revitalized and sea trading dominated. Greeks come in contact with new ideas about civilization, borrowing things such as Phoenician alphabet.
- in Athens, political disputes lead to democracy and power.
- Greek city-state Iona asked for help against Persian rule, and Athens sent troops in name of democracy. Persia won, came looking for revenge, but defeated by Athens at Battle of Marathon.
- 486 BCE, Persia's King Darius preparing to invade Greece, died. His son Xerxes became king
- 480 BCE, Xerxes marched his massive army, and Athens & Sparta organized resistance. 300 Spartans made their stand, but Persia would destroy Athens.
- Eventually Themistocles and Greek navy drive Persia out of Greece.